Giannakopoulou, Stella. Autor https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2407-5926 - ; Kolokoussis, Polychronis. Autor https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5420-0900 - ; Arvanitis, Apostolos. Autor https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0504-7994 -
While mountain regions face territorial disparities when set against lowlands, the EU’s post-2020 Cohesion Policy seeks to reduce such between regions by focusing on those that are most vulnerable. Along with regions that are otherwise remote, mountainous areas are mostly seen as in decline, and deprived of opportunities to achieve sustainable development. They face serious demographic issues connected closely with migration outflows, while they are characterised by low-quality educational services and a paucity of employment opportunities compared with circumstances in the lowlands. It against this background that the work detailed here was carried out to investigate inequalities between mountain and lowland areas of Greece. Specifically, the focus is on disparities in levels of education and unemployment, as well as population shifts. While the temporal frame comprises the period 2001-2011, the locality is the mountainous Municipal Unit of Ioannina, in the Region of Epirus. The findings reveal high level of inequality in all sectors of vital importance to one of the EU’s poorest regions, while the further aim of the paper id to reveal the main drivers underpinning disparities in the context of post-2020 policy.
Ariza, C., Maselli, D., Kohler, T. (2013). Mountains: Our life, our future. Progress and perspectives on sustainable mountain development from Rio 1992 to Rio 2012 and beyond. Bern, Switzerland: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Centre for Development and Environment (CDE).
Basiouka, A. (2011). The demographic identity of mountain regions of Greece. Postgraduate thesis. MSc programme "Environment and Development of Mountainous Areas". National Technical University of Athens. (in Greek)
Bauer, R., Fassmann, H. (2010). Demographic and migratory flows affecting European regions and cities. (DEMIFER), ESPON 2013 Programme, Deliverable 3 Typology of Regions. Retrieved from https://www.espon.eu/programme/projects/espon-2013/applied-research/demifer-demographic-andmigratory-flows-affecting [10 March 2020].
Castelein, A., Dinh, T.T.V., Mekouar, M.A., Villeneuve, A. (2006). Mountains and the law: Emerging trends. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Čede, P., Deissl, G., Löffler, R., Steinicke, E. (2018). The Eastern Austrian Alps - Their exceptional demographic status in the Alpine Region. European Countryside, 10(4), 634-651. https://doi.org/10.2478/euco-2018-0035
Cohesion Policy post 2020. Retrieved from https://vng.nl/files/vng/180913-presentatie-lewis-dijkstra_cohesion-policy-post-2020-utrecht.pdf [10 February 2020].
Collantes, F., Pinilla, V. (2004). Extreme depopulation in the Spanish rural mountain areas: A case study of Aragon in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rural History, 15(2), 149-166. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0956793304001219
COM. (2010). Europe 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:2020:FIN:EN:PDF [15 February 2020].
CR 1057/2003. Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS).
CR 1257/1999. Council Regulation No 1257/1999 of 17 May 1999 on support for rural development from the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) and amending and repealing certain Regulations.
Darra, A., Kavouras, M., Tzelepis, N. (2003). A rational characterization and visualization of topographic relief into mountainous, semi-mountainous and plane terrain. Proceedings of 21st ICC, Durban.
Darra, A., Kavouras, M., Tzelepis, N. (2010). Characterization of Greek municipalities and sub-municipalities according to their topographic relief. Geographia Technica, Special Issue, 12-19.
Dax, T., Machold, I. (2019). New patterns of mobility, processes of integration and agency in Austrian rural areas. In G. Galera, I. Machold, M. Perlik, A. Membretti (Eds.), Alpine refugees: Immigration at the core of Europe (pp. 95-106). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Dimitriadis, E. (1997). The renaissance of the settlements in Greece during late Ottoman Empire. Archaeology and Arts, 65, 22-30. (in Greek)
Drăgan, M. (2010). Multi-scale analysis of the demographic evolution in the Apuseni Mountains between 1880 and 2008. Romanian Review of Regional Studies, 6(1), 57-66.
EEA. (2010). Europe's ecological backbone: Recognizing the true value of our mountains. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
ELSTAT. (2001). Population Census 2001, De facto population, Permanent population. Hellenic Statistical Authority.
ELSTAT. (2011). Population Census 2011, De facto population, Permanent population. Hellenic Statistical Authority.
Euromontana. (2012). Strategies to increase the attractiveness of mountain areas: How to approach depopulation in an integrated manner? Final report on "integrated approach". Policies Against Depopulation in Mountain Areas (PADIMA). Retrieved from https://www.euromontana.org/wpcontent/uploads/2014/08/PADIMA_policy_guidlines_EN.df [10 February 2020].
Euromontana. (2013). Toward mountains 2020. Brussels: Euromontana.
Europe Strategy 2020. A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Communication from the commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eu2020/pdf/COMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%20007%20-%20Europe%202020%20-%20EN%20version.pdf [1 February 2020].
Eurostat. (2019). GDP per capita in 281 EU regions. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/9618249/1-26022019-AP-EN.pdf/f765d183-c3d2-4e2f-9256-cc6665909c80 [20 May 2020].
Giannakopoulou, S. (2012). Evaluation of the vernacular architecture of mountain regions using Environmental Economics methods. (PhD thesis). National Technical University of Athens. (in Greek)
Gløersen, E., Price, M.F., Borec, A., Dax, T., Giordano, B. (2016). Cohesion in Mountainous Regions of the EU. Research for REGI Committee, European Parliament, Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Policies Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, Regional Development, IP/B/REGI/IC/2015_175. Brussels, Belgium: European Parliament.
ICIMOD. (2010). Gender perspectives in mountain development: New challenges and innovative approaches. Periodical publication on sustainable mountain development. No 57 Summer, Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated Mountain Development.
Katsikas, C. (2018). Poverty drew 15,000 children out of school. Article in newspaper: TA NEA. Retrieved from https://www.tanea.gr/2008/10/31/greece/i-ftwxeia-ediwkse-15-000-paidia-apo-to-sxoleio/[10 December 2019]. (in Greek)
Kebza, M., Nováček, A., Popjaková, D. (2019). Socio - Economic disparities in the Baltic States: Analytical comparison and categorization of the regions. Geographia Polonica, 92(3), 289-307. https://doi.org/ 10.7163/GPol.0150
Kohler, T., Elizbarashvili, N., Meladze, G., Svanadze, D., Meessen, H. (2017). The demo geographic crisis in Racha, Georgia: Depopulation in the Central Caucasus Mountains. Mountain Research and Development, 37(4), 415-424. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-17-00064.1
Löffler, R., Beismann, M., Walder, J., Steinicke, E. (2014). New highlanders in traditional out-migration areas in the Alps. The example of the Friulian Alps. Journal of Alpine Research / Revue de géographie alpine, 102-3. https://doi.org/10.4000/rga.2546
Lung, M.S. (2019). Continuity and demographic cycling in the Romanian Carpathian space in the period 1930-2011. Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Seria Geografie, 29(1), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.30892/auog.291109-802
Matsouka, P., Adamakopoulos, T. (2008). The Greek mountains: Environment, habitation, mountain tourism. In Mountainous Space and Forests. Athens: Interdisciplinary Institute for Environmental Research. (in Greek)
Messerli, B., Ives, J.D. (Eds.). (1997). Mountains of the world: A global priority. Carnforth: Parthenon.
Mladenov, C., Ilieva, M. (2012). The depopulation of the Bulgarian villages. Bulletin of Geography, Socio-economic Series, 17, 99-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10089-012-0010-8
Moss, L.A.G. (2008). Amenity-led change in rural towns and regions. Amenity Migration Planning Capacity Building Workshop 1, Castlegar, BC 09-11.
Moss, L.A.G. (Ed.). (2006). The amenity migrants: Seeking and sustaining mountains and their cultures. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990842.0000
New Cohesion Policy. Regional Development and Cohesion Policy beyond 2020: The New Framework at a glance. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/2021_2027/ [1 January 2020].
Nordregio. (2004). Mountain areas in Europe. Analysis of mountain areas in EU Member States, acceding and other European countries. Final Report, Stockholm, Sweden: Nordregio. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/montagne/mount1.pdf [15 December 2019].
Paizis, N., Fotopoulos, N. (n.d.). Study of the access system in tertiary education. Vol. 12. Scenarios of educational policy. Zones of educational priority. KANEP - GSEE. Retrieved from http://www.kanep-gsee.gr/sitefiles/files/tomos-12.pdf [1 December 2019]. (in Greek)
Panagiotopoulos, G., Kaliampakos, D. (2019). Accessibility and spatial inequalities in Greece. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 12(3), 567-586. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-018-9256-8
Price, M.F., Dixon, B., Warren, C.R., Macpherson, R. (2002). Scotland's mountains: Key issues for their future management. Battleby: Scottish Natural Heritage.
Price, M.F. (2015). Mountains. A very short introduction. Oxford, USA: Oxford University Press.https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780199695881.001.0001
Price, M.F. (2016). Mountains move up the European Agenda. Mountain Research and Development, 36(3), 376-379. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-16-00100.1
Price, M.F., Jansky, L., Iatsenia, A.A. (Eds.). (2004). Key issues for mountain areas. United Nations University Press.
Price, M.F., Lysenko, I., Gloersen, E. (2004). Delineating Europe's mountains. Revue de Géographie Alpine Année, 92(2), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.3406/rga.2004.2294
Ruffini, F., Streifeneder, T., Eiselt, B. (2006). Implementing an international mountain convention - An approach for the delimitation of the Carpathian Convention area. Bolzano: European Accademy.
Terres, J-M., Toth, T., Wania, A., Hagyo, A., Koeble, R., Nisini, L. (2016). Updated guidelines for applying common criteria to identify agricultural areas with natural constraints. Luxembourg: Publications Office. https://doi.org/10.2788/130243
UNCED. (1992). United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Rio, 1992. Agenda 21.
UNEP-WCMC. (2002). Mountain watch. Environmental change and sustainable development in mountains. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/mountainwatchenv02blyt [1 March 2020].
Widuto, A. (2019). Regional Inequalities in the EU. EPRS - European Parliamentary Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/637951/EPRS_BRI(2019)637951_EN.pdf [1 April 2020].
Zachou, C., Alipranti, L., Bavela, Z., Stamou, H., Stavropoulou, N., Zarotiadou, M. (2018). Greece. Education and Employment Commission (2017-2018). Retrieved from https://www.euw-hellas.gr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/EUW-Report-2018-Education-and-Employment-Commission-.pdf [15 April 2020].
Program Operacyjny Polska Cyfrowa, lata 2014-2020, Działanie 2.3 : Cyfrowa dostępność i użyteczność sektora publicznego; środki z Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego oraz współfinansowania krajowego z budżetu państwa