Place of publishing:
The home range size, spacing pattern and intraspecific relations in the lynx Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in Białowieża Primeval Forest (eastern Poland), in 1991-1996. Eighteen lynx (11 males and 7 females) were captured and radio-collared. The mean autumn-winter home range size was 165 km2 for males and 94 km2 for females. In spring-summer, it was 143 and 55 km2, respectively. The mean life-time home ranges were 248 km2 for males and 133 km2 for females. Male home range size did not change significantly between autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons, however, their ranges icreased by 40-90% just before and during the mating season (December-March). The home range of females in the autumn-winter season was almost twice as large compared with the spring-summer period (94 vs 55 km2). The smallest home ranges were observed in breeding females during the two months after parturition (10 km) and these grew until the following spring. The home ranges calculated for 5-month periods shifted on average 4 km in adult males, 2.7 in adult females and 4.7 km in subadult males. One of the farthest shifts in the adult male range (8.7 km) was explained by the death of a neighbouring resident. The average overlap between adult males' ranges was 30%, while those between females was 6%. The largest overlap occured between adult males and females (62%) as well as between adult and subadult males (75%). The lynx showed a tendency to avoid each other. The average distance between neighbouring adult males was 11.6 km, and they were never found closer than 1 km to each other. The average distance between neighbouring females was 8.1 km. Besides a few meetings between males and females (during and outside the mating season), they were located separately (4.4 km from each other, on average). In 93% of the cases an adult female was recorded with her dependent kittens. It was concluded that home range size and spacing pattern in male lynx depend on the distribution of females, whereas spacing in females was determined by food-related factors.