RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: Koncepcje geopolityczne Karla Haushofera = The Geopolitical concepts of Karl Haushofer


Eberhardt, Piotr (1935–2020)

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Przegląd Geograficzny T. 81 z. 4 (2009)



Place of publishing:



24 cm

Type of object:



This paper presenting the geopolitical achievements of well-known German geographer Karl Haushofer begins with a summary of Haushofer’s life and major achievements in politics and research. While the subject’s contacts with Hitler are recalled, it is stressed that – notwithstanding his opinions regarding nationalistm and superpower status – Haushofer acceptedneither Nazism nor anti-Semitism. The article goes on to present the main geopolitical concepts of its subject, of which the first concerned the new order (neue Ordnung), an advocation of major changes in Germany, not least in respect of a revised Treaty of Versailles. While these opinions from Haushofer were nothing more (lacking a scientific basis), they did initiate important political processes in Germany. The second concept discussed concerns world Pan-regions, as construed in relation to history, geography and philosophy, with a view to the world being divided into large territorial units both politically and geographically based. One of t Haushofer’s best-known definitions has world reduced to just the Pan-European, Pan-American, Pan-Russian and Pan-Pacific regions. Pan-Europe is (naturally) within the German zone of influence, with its capital in Berlin. It extends across Europe (excluding Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia), as well as throughout Africa and the Middle East as broadly conceived. The Pan-Russian region in turn consists of the European part of Russia plus Byelorussia and Ukraine, western and eastern Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan and the whole Indian peninsula. The Pan-Pacific region was based on China with Tibet and Mongolia, the Russian Far East, South-Eastern Asia, Australia and New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. The whole of that area was regarded as under the influence of Japan, leaving the Pan-American continent as supposedly dependent on the United States. The third analysed concept was a project for a so-called geopolitical “triangle”, which had a clearly political character and was created in 1940 as a reflection of the political pact between Germany, Italy and Japan. Haushofer sought to analysing the political and territorial consequences of this pact. One of the most important Haushofer concepts was the idea of the Euro-Asiatic Continental Block (Die Kontinentalblock Mitteleuropa–Eurasien–Japan). This was based on the geopolitical pact between Berlin, Moscow and Tokyo. The project was put into effect between August 1939 and December 1940, before finally being buried with Germany’s invasion of the USSR. This concept in fact referred to the well-known Mackinder ‘Heartland’ theory, and anticipated a future confrontation between land and maritime superpowers. A further part of the text focuses on Haushofer’s views of Poland, which were both critical and hostile, and hence in line with its author’s strong support for the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact that liquidated the Polish state. This paper concludes with an analysis of Haushofer’s scientific works and his outlook on the world. Though opposing Hitler during the last phase of World War II, Haushofer was nevertheless representative of extreme nationalism. However, if the political opinions can be put to one side, it is possible to note the major contribution made by Haushofer’s works to the development of political geography.


1. Diner D., 1999, Knowledge of expansion of the geopolitics of Karl Haushofer, Geopolitics, 4, 3, s. 161–188.
2. Dorpalen A., 1984, The World of General Haushofer, Farrar – Rinehart Inc., New York.
3. Dugin A., 1999, Osnovy Geopolityki, Artogeja – centr, Moskva.
4. Eberhardt P., 2005, Geneza niemieckiej koncepcji Mitteleuropy", Przegląd Geograficzny, 77, 4, s. 463–483.
5. Eberhardt P., 2007, Koncepcja Paneuropy" Richarda N. Coudenhove-Kalergiego, Przegląd Geograficzny, 79, 3–4, s. 439–460.
6. Eberhardt P., 2008, Geneza i rozwój niemieckiej doktryny Lebensraumu, Przegląd Geograficzny, 80, 2, s. 175–198.
7. Ebeling F., 1994, Geopolitik. Karl Haushofer und Seine Raum-wissenschaft 1919–1945, Akademie Verlag, Berlin.
8. Haushofer K., 1927, Grenzen. In ihrer Geographischen und Politischen Bedeutung, Kurt Vowinckel Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin-Grunawald.
9. Haushofer K., 1930, Japan Reichserneuerung. Strukturwandlungen von der Meiji – Ära bis heute, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
10. Haushofer K., 1931, Geopolitik der Pan-Ideen. Weltpolitische Bücherei Band 21, Zentral-Verlag G.m.b.H, Berlin.
11. Haushofer K., 1932, Wehr – Geopolitik. Geographische Grundlagen einer Wehrkunde, Junker und Dünnhaupt Verlag, Berlin.
12. Haushofer K., 1934a, Atemweite, Lebensraum und Gleichberechtigung auf Erden, Zeitschrift für Geopolitik, 11, 1, Berlin-Grünewald, s. 1–14.
13. Haushofer K., 1934b, Staat, Raum und Selbstbestimmung. Rauműberwindende Mächte, Verlag und Druck von B. G. Teubner, Leipzig.
14. Haushofer K., 1934c, Weltpolitik von Heute, Zeitgeschichte Verlag und Vertriebs-Gesellschaft, Berlin.
15. Haushofer K., 1937, Weltmeere und Weltmächte, Wihelm Undermann-Zeitgeschichte Verlag, Berlin.
16. Haushofer K., 1938, Geopolitik das Pazifischen Ozeans. Studien über die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Geographie und Geschichte, Kurt Vowincel Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin.
17. Haushofer K., 1941a, Die Kontinentalblock. Mitteleuropa–Eurasien–Japan, Kriegsschnften der Reichsstudentenführens, 2 Auflage, München.
18. Haushofer K., 1941b, Japan baut sein Reich, Zeitgeschichte Verlag, Berlin.
19. Haushofer K., 1943, Das Reich. Grossdeutches Werden im Abendland, Verlag von Habel, Berlin.
20. Haushofer K., 1944, Japans Kulturpolitik, W. de Gruyter u. Co., Berlin.
21. Haushofer K., 1979, Geopolitische Grundlagen, [w:] H.A. Jacobsen, Karl Haushofer – Leben und Werk. I, Lebenweg 1869-1946 und ausgewählte Texte zur Geopolitik, Harald Boldt Verlag, Boppard am Rhein, s. 558–606.
22. Haushofer K., 2000, Geograficzne spełnienie trójkąta. Przestrzeń i polityka. Z dziejów niemieckiej myśli politycznej. Wybór i opracowanie A. Wolff-Powęska, E. Schulz, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań, s. 493–496.
23. Haushofer K., 2001, O geopolitikie: Raboty raznych liet, Izd. Mysl, Moskva.
24. Haushofer K., Fochler-Hauke G., 1937, Welt in Gärung. Zeitberichte Deutscher Geopolitiker, Deutsches Verlag für Politik und Wirtschaft, Berlin.
25. Haushofer K., Obst E., Lautensach H., Maull O., 1928, Herausgegeben der Zeitschrift für Geopolitik, Verlag K. Vowinckel, Berlin-Grunewald.
26. Hirszowicz M., 1955, O geopolityce, Myśl Filozoficzna, 5/6, Warszawa, s. 257–286.
27. Jacobsen H.A., 1979, Karl Haushofer – Leben und Werk. I. Lebenweg 1869–1946 und ausgewählte Texte zur Geopolitik; II. Ausgewählter Schriftwechsel 1917–1946, Harald Boldt Verlag, Boppard am Rhein.
28. Jean C., 2003, Geopolityka, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków.
29. Klin T., 2008, Wizje ładu międzynarodowego w niemieckiej i anglosaskiej myśli geopolitycznej w okresie II wojny światowej, Wyd. A. Marszałek, Toruń.
30. Litwin J., 1956, Szkice krytyczne o determinizmie geograficznym i geopolityce, Książka i Wiedza, Warszawa.
31. Macała J., 2008, Nieco zapomniany Karl Haushofer, Geopolityka. Biuletyn Naukowo-Analityczny Instytutu Geopolityki, 1, Zielona Góra, s. 71–84.
32. Macała J., 2009, Blok kontynentalny Karla Hauhofera, Geopolityka, II, 2(3), Częstochowa, s. 49–62.
33. Moczulski S., 1999, Geopolityka. Potęga w czasie i przestrzeni, Bellona, Warszawa.
34. Otok S., 2003, Geografia polityczna. Geopolityka – Państwo – Ekopolityka, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.
35. Political Geography of the Twentieth Century. A Global Analysis, 1993, red. Peter J. Taylor, Belhaven Press, London.
36. Przestrzeń i polityka. Z dziejów niemieckiej myśli politycznej, 2000, Wybór i opracowanie A. Wolff-Powęska i E. Schulz, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań.
37. Rykiel Z., 2006, Podstawy geografii politycznej, Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warszawa.
38. Springenschmid K., 1935, Die Staaten als Lebenwesen. Geopolitisches Stizzenbuch, Verlag Ernst Wunderlich, Leipzig.
39. Taylor P.J., Flint C., 2000, Political Geography. World – Economy, Nation – State and Locality, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh.
40. Wolff-Powęska A., 1979, Doktryna geopolityki w Niemczech, Instytut Zachodni, Poznań.
41. Wolkersdorfer G., 1999, Karl Haushofer and geopolitics – the history of a German mythos, Geopolitics, 4, 3, Winter, s. 145–160.


Przegląd Geograficzny





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 0,6 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:55576 ; 0033-2143 ; 10.7163/PrzG.2009.1.5


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, sygn.: Cz.181, Cz.3136, Cz.4187 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Rights Reserved - Free Access

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. May be used within the limits of statutory user freedoms

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure ; European Union. European Regional Development Fund





Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information