Title: Conceptualizing Inter-religious Relations in the Ottoman Empire: The Early Modern Centuries


Gara, Eleni

Date issued/created:


Resource Type:

Article : original article


Acta Poloniae Historica T. 116 (2017) ; The Wealth of Diversity Inter-religious and Inter-confessional Contacts in Central and East-Central Europe in the Early Modern Era


Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences ; Polish National Historical Committee


Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Place of publishing:



p. 57-91 ; 23 cm


This article presents the points of view from which interreligious relations in the Ottoman world have been approached in academic historiography, the frames of interpretation and concepts that have been used, and the critical reassessments and revisions that are currently underway. Conceptions about the position of the non-Muslims and the nature and forms of interreligious relations in the Ottoman Empire have changed perceptively over the last half century. The mosaic world of subjugated nations and self-governed religious communities (millets) that lived parallel and distinct lives gave its place, in the last two decades of the twentieth century, to the plural society of extensive interreligious interaction at individual or communal level. In tandem came the shift from an emphasis on the oppression of the non-Muslims to that on toleration. We are now in a new phase of revision which focuses on the forms, extent and limits of toleration and intercommunal interaction, and pays close attention to change over time.


Anastasopoulos Antonis, ‘Non-Muslims and Ottoman justice(s?)’, in Jeroen Duindam, Jill Harries, Caroline Humfress, and Nimrod Hurvitz (eds.), Law and empire: Ideas, practices, actors (Leiden, 2013), 275–92. ; Baer Marc David, Honored by the glory of Islam: Conversion and conquest in Ottoman Europe (Oxford, 2008). ; Baer Marc, Ussama Makdisi, and Andrew Shryock, ‘Tolerance and conversion in the Ottoman Empire: A conversation’, [CSSH Discussion], Comparative Studies in Society and History li, 4 (2009), 927–40. ; Braude Benjamin and Bernard Lewis (eds.), Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The functioning of a plural society, 2 vols. (New York and London, 1982). ; Gara Eleni and Yorgos Tzedopoulos, Χριστιανοί και μουσουλμάνοι στην Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία: Θεσμικές πραγματικότητες και κοινωνικές δυναμικές (Αθήνα, 2015). ; Gradeva Rossitsa, ‘Apostasy in Rumeli in the middle of the sixteenth century’, Arab Historical Review for Ottoman Studies, xxii (2000), 29–73. ; Greene Molly, A shared world: Christians and Muslims in the early modern Mediterranean (Princeton, 2000). ; Jennings Ronald C, ‘Zimmis (non-Muslims) in early 17th century Ottoman judicial records: The sharia court of Anatolian Kayseri’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient xxi, 3 (1978), 225–93. ; Kermeli Eugenia, ‘The right to choice: Ottoman justice vis-à-vis ecclesiastical and communal justice in the Balkans, seventeenth-nineteenth centuries’, in Andreas Christmann and Robert Gleave (eds.), Studies in Islamic law: A festschrift for Colin Imber (Oxford, 2007), 165–210. ; Kołodziejczyk Dariusz, ‘The “Turkish yoke” revisited: The Ottoman non-Muslim subjects between loyalty, alienation, and riot’, Acta Poloniae Historica, 93 (2006), 177–95. ; Konortas Paraskevas, Οθωμανικές θεωρήσεις για το Οικουμενικό Πατριαρχείο, 17ος – αρχές 20ού αιώνα (Αθήνα, 1998). ; Krstić Tijana, Contested conversions to Islam: Narratives of religious change in the early modern Ottoman Empire (Stanford, 2011). ; Levy Avidgor (ed.), The Jews of the Ottoman Empire (Princeton, 1994). ; Masters Bruce, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab world: The roots of sectarianism (Cambridge, 2001). ; Papademetriou Tom, Render unto the sultan: Power, authority, and the Greek Orthodox Church in the early Ottoman centuries (Oxford, 2015). ; Al-Qattan Najwa, ‘Dhimmīs in the Muslim court: Legal autonomy and religious discrimination’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, xxxi, 3 (1999), 429–44. ; Rodrigue Aron, ‘Difference and tolerance in the Ottoman Empire: An interview with Aron Rodrigue’, interview by Nancy Reynolds, Stanford Electronic Humanities Review, v, 1 (1996) . ; Tezcan Baki, ‘Ethnicity, race, religion and social class: Ottoman markers of difference’, in Christine Woodhead (ed.), The Ottoman world (London and New York, 2012), 159–70. ; Ursinus Michael, ‘Communautés’, in François Georgeon, Nicolas Vatin, and Gilles Veinstein (eds.), Dictionnaire de l’empire Ottoman (Paris, 2015), 280–3. ; Zachariadou Elisabeth A., Δέκα τουρκικά έγγραφα για την Μεγάλη Εκκλησία (1483–1567) (Αθήνα, 1996).


Acta Poloniae Historica



Start page:


End page:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:68565 ; oai:rcin.org.pl:68565 ; 0001-6829 ; 10.12775/APH.2017.116.03


IH PAN, sygn. A.295/116 Podr. ; IH PAN, sygn. A.296/116 ; click here to follow the link




Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Institute of History PAS

Projects co-financed by:



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information