Title: Neuropathological syndromes in the course of full blown acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in adults in Poland (1987-1995)


Severus Publishing House

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Morphological analysis of the brains from 100 cases of full blown AIDS patients observed in the course of 1987-1995 years was performed. The material comprised 96 males, 3 females and 1 infant, 11 months old. Early material consisted almost exclusively of homo- and bisexuals, while in the last years heterosexual drug addicts prevailed. Gross brain examination revealed focal changes in 25% of cases, most of them being connected either with opportunistic infections or primary proliferating malignancies. Brain atrophy with an evident regional differences was observed macroscopically in 35 cases. Microscopic examination allowed detection of pathological changes in the brains of 87 cases, although in there maining 13 cases there occurred some slight abnormalities taking the form of non-specific neuronal degeneration andloss, considered as resulting from perimortal cardio-pulmonary insufficiency or bleeding. Specific HIV-related changes in the form of HIV-encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy or coexistence of both and HIV-leptomeningitis as well as HIV-vasculitis were present in 35 cases. They were accompanied by HIV-associated changes (vacuolar myelopathy, vacuolar leukoencephalopathy and selective poliodystrophy). Very seldom they appearedas independent pathological features and were characterized by very low frequency. Opportunistic infections composed the largest group of 59 cases. Proliferative malignancies occurred altogether in eleven cases, 10 of which were primary and secondary brain lymphomas. One case of Kaposi sarcoma completed the neoplastic series. Sixteen cases revealed various types of brain pathology such as hepatogenic encephalopathy, traumatic cortical scars, central pontinemyelinolysis etc. The 59 cases of opportunistic infections consisted of a wide spectrum of viral and bacterial as well as fungal and protozoan infections. Among viral infections cytomegalovirus encephalitis was the most common, way ahead the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The second in frequency among opportunistic infections was brain toxoplasmosis and some fungal infections such as cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. Bacterial infections were in factlimited to tuberculosis, taking the form of granulomatous leptomeningitis with severe vascular pathology and/or tuberculoma formation. Many pathological processes appearing in a single case was characteristic feature of our collection. There was coexistence of HIV-specific CNS pathology and opportunistic infections, malignant neoplastic growth and other types of pathology. Various opportunistic infections coexisted without HIV-specific changes as well as malignant proliferation with opportunistic infections. Similarities and differences of our series were compared with data characterizing other, earlier collections of NeuroAIDS.


Folia Neuropathologica





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Language of abstract:

eng ; pol


Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

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Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

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Mossakowski Medical Research Center PAS

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Library of the Mossakowski Medical Research Center PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



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