Title: Emeryci w przestrzeni społecznej Polski gomułkowskiej


Jarosz, Dariusz (1959- )

Date issued/created:


Resource Type:

Article : original article


Polska 1944/45-1989 : studia i materiały 11 (2013)


Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences


Instytut Historii PAN

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p. 67-92 ; Tables included. ; Eng. summary


The purpose of the article is an analysis of conditions and social situation of retired persons in the Polish People’s Republic in 1956–1970. It was based mainly on materials stored in the Central Archives of Modern Records, Archives of Polish Radio and Television and the results of sociological and statistical research. Certain contributions to the subject could be found in the specialist, informational and socio-cultural press.In the light of research evidence, the place of retirees within social space of Gomułka’s Poland was conditioned by several factors. The most important were:1. Demographic and social factors (composition and size of the group of people of retirement age, a scale of migration from the country to town and cities).2. Social policy, including mainly the solutions of the retirement and pension system (scale of the availability of retirement pensions, their amount depending on the period they were granted, i.e. the old and new pension portfolio).3. Low standard of retirement pensions which determined extremely harsh living conditions of retired persons and pensioners. Despite pension rises in 1956 and 1958, as late as in 1966 circa 70 percent of pensions were below the official minimum subsistence level for that year. On the opposite pole there were privileged groups with pensions twice as high; those included retired miners, military men, functionaries of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and prison officers, as well as the so-called people with special merits. Old people (including retired persons) were living in accommodations poorly equipped with basic systems of technical infrastructure. Their health deteriorated with advancing age; in the mid-1960s circa ten percent either did not leave house or was bedridden.4. The continuation (or not) of their professional work, which was significantly hampered by the system solutions passed in 1958 and 1968.All these factors had an impact on the retirees’ awareness, attitudes and behaviours. The world of their social contacts was gradually shrinking into the family circle. At the same time the status of retired person was accompanied more and more often not only by infirmity, but also by acute feelings of loneliness and isolation. The then system of social welfare and security was unable to meet these needs.


Polska 1944/45-1989 : studia i materiały



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Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:59723 ; 2450-8357


IH PAN, sygn. B.155/11 Podr. ; IH PAN, sygn. B.156/11 ; click here to follow the link



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Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license

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Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

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Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences

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Library of the Institute of History PAS

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