Title: How governance counts? Comparative analysis of activity and funding patterns of Central European cross-border cooperation programmes


Europa XXI 35 (2018)



Place of publishing:



29 cm


Cross-border cooperation – as objective 3 of cohesion policy since the 2007-2013 programming period – plays a key role in promoting Europeanisation, which is especially important in case of Central Europe that is dominated by small national states. Target areas of cross-border cooperation are the NUTS 3 units located along the state borders. As project generation, decision making and implementation is overwhelmingly done on regional level, territorial governance structures are decisive from cross-border cooperation point of view. The paper focuses on two programmes – the Slovenia-Austria and the Hungary-Croatia – whose target areas are lacking large urban centres, middle-size and small towns make up the backbone of the settlement network. The involved countries are very diverse in regional governance structures. Austria is a federal state with strong regional governments. Croatia and Hungary are unitary states with limited capacities on regional level. Slovenia is, again, a unitary state that lacks medium level of government, therefore the local level is the carrier of cross-border cooperation. Aim of the paper is to identify how different systems of territorial governance are reflected in the implementation of the programme and the allocation of funding. After presenting the premises of cross-border cooperation and a brief outline of the two programmes a quantified analysis will be presented based on primary ex-post programme data of the 2007-2013 Slovenia-Austria and Hungary-Croatia cross-border cooperation programmes. Analysis is conducted on LAU 2 level in order to show how different categories of the settlement structure contribute in terms of cooperation activity and absorption and how it is distributed between different types of beneficiary organisations.


1. AEBR, 1997. The EU Initiative INTERREG and future developments. Association of European Border Regions, https://www.aebr.eu/files/publications/interreg_97.en.pdf [16 July 2018]. ; 2. Bali L., 2012. A magyar-horvát határon átnyúló kapcsolatok jelene és jövője [Present and future of Hungarian-Croatian cross-border cooperation]. Underground Kiadó. ; 3. Bojar, E., 2008. Euroregions in Poland. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, vol. 5, pp. 442-447. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.1998.tb01576.x ; 4. Bundeskanzleramt, ÖSB Consulting, 2004. Systemische Evaluierung des Regionalmanagements in Österreich, Kurzfassung [Systematic evaluation of Regional managements in Austria, Summary]. http://archiv.bka.gv.at/DocView.axd?CobId=9550 [30 July 2018]. ; 5. CADSES, 2006. INTERREG IIIB CADSES Project Book - Advancing Transnational Cooperation. http://www.interreg-central.de/fileadmin/ccp/Programm/CADSES_Projectbook.pdf [10 March 2016]. ; 6. CBC, 2007. Operational Programme Cross-border Cooperation Slovenia-Austria 2007-2013. CCI Number: 2007CB163PO054. ; 7. CBC, 2013. Hungary-Croatia Cross-border Co-operation Programme. Programming document for the programming period 2007-2013. CCI Number: 2013CB163PO002, http://www.hu-hr-ipa.com/en/file_download/197 [7 September 2017]. ; 8. CESCI, 2016. Crossing the Borders - Studies on cross-border cooperation within the Danube Region. Case Study the Euroregion Danube-Drava-Sava. Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, European Institute for Cross-border Studies. http://institute.cesci-net.eu/tiny_mce/uploaded/EUSDR_Part_Two_13_DanubeDravaSava.pdf [24 October 2016]. ; 9. Csapó J., Čelan T. J., Trócsányi A., 2015. A határmenti együttműködés hatásai a területi fejlődésre a magyar-horvát szakasz példáján az EU tervezési mechanizmusának tükrében (2007-2013) [Impacts of cooperation in border areas on territorial development on example of the Hungary-Croatia border area, in light of the EU planning mechanism (2007-2013)]. Területfejlesztés és Innováció, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 22-31. ; 10. Delo, 2008. Slovenija išče konsenz o pokrajinah že več kot desetletje [Slovenia has been seeking consensus on the regions for more than a decade]. http://www.delo.si/novice/slovenija/slovenija-isce-konsenz-o-pokrajinah-ze-vec-kot-desetletje.html [20 July 2016]. ; 11. Dubarle P., Mezei C., Pámer Z., 2011. Regional development programmes. [in:] G. Horváth, Z. Hajdú (eds.) Regional Transformation Processes in the Western Balkan Countries. Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Regional Studies, Pécs, pp. 570-601. ; 12. Đulabić V., Manojlović R., 2011. Administrative Aspects of Regional and Cohesion Policy in Croatia. [in:] Search of a Better Coordination of Parallel Processes. Croatian and Comparative Public Administration, vol 11, no. 4, pp. 1041-1074. ; 13. EC, 2006. Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999. ; 14. Hajdú Z., 1996. Emerging conflict or deepening cooperation? The case of the Hungarian border regions. [in:] J. W. Scott et al. (eds.) Border Regions in Functional Transition: European and North American Perspectives on Transboundary Interaction. Institut für Regionalentwicklung und Strukturplanung, Berlin, pp. 193-211. ; 15. Harguindéguy J.-B., Bray Z., 2009. Does cross-border cooperation empower European regions? The case of INTERREG III-A France - Spain. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, vol. 27, pp. 747-760. https://doi.org/10.1068/c08119 ; 16. INTERACT, 2015. Fact Sheet; Historical view of Interreg / European Territorial Cooperation. www.interact-eu.net/download/file/fid/2902 [16 July 2018]. ; 17. Ivanišević S., Kopric ́I., Omejec J., Simovic J., 2001. Local Government in Croatia. [in:] E. Kandeva (ed.) Stabilization of Local Governments. Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative. Open Society Institute. Budapest. ; 18. Lados M., 2005. Programértékelés a 2000. évi Magyarország-Ausztria Phare CBC Kisprojekt Alap példáján [Programme evaluation on example of the year 2000 Hungary-Austria Phare CBC Small Project Fund]. Tér és Társadalom, vol. 2, pp. 101-126. https://doi.org/10.17649/TET.19.2.1002 ; 19. Land Steiermark, 2016. Neue Förderperiode EUREGIO Steiermark/Slowenien 2007-2013. http://www.raumplanung.steiermark.at/cms/beitrag/10820941/265384/ [10 March 2016]. ; 20. Lindstrom N., 2005: Europeanization and sub-national governance in Slovenia. ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Granada, 15-19 April 2005, https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/76d206bf-5659-48c4-9d57-0c6887afa72c.pdf [8 June 2016]. ; 21. Manzella G. P., Mendez C., 2009. The turning points of EU Cohesion policy. http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/archive/policy/future/pdf/8_manzella_final-formatted.pdf [2 July 2018]. ; 22. Nadalutti E., 2015. The Effects of Europeanization on the Integration Process in the Upper Adriatic Region. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16471-7 ; 23. ÖREK, 2010. Ausgangslage und Trends, Herausforderungen und Anforderungen, Lösungsvorschläge und Empfehlungen zur österreichischen Raumpolitik. Ergebniszusammenfassung, Arbeitsgruppe V, Raumentwicklung. ÖREK, https://www.oerok.gv.at/fileadmin/Bilder/2.Reiter-Raum_u._Region/1. OEREK/OEREK_2011/AGs/5._AG_V_Raumentwicklung/B_Ergebniszusammenfassung_AG_V_Raumentwicklungspolitik.pdf [2 September 2017]. ; 24. Pálné Kovács I., 2009. Europeanisation of Territorial Governance in Three Eastern/Central European Countries. Halduskultuur, 2009, vol. 10, pp. 40-57. ; 25. Pámer Z., 2007. The European integration and regional policy of the West Balkan countries. [in:] Z. Hajdú, I. Illés, Z. Raffay (eds.) Southeast-Europe: State Borders, Cross-Border Relations, Spatial Structures. Centre for Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pécs, pp. 119-160. ; 26. Pámer Z., 2011. The possibilities of implementing the European Grouping of the Territorial Cooperation in South Transdanubia. [in:] A. Ágh, T. Kaiser, B. Koller (eds.) The New Horizons of the Cohesion Policy in the European Union: the Challenge of the Danube Strategy. Blue Ribbon Research Centre King Sigismund College, Budapest, pp. 176-194. ; 27. Perkmann M., 2003. Cross-border Regions in Europe. Significance and Drivers of Regional Cross-border Cooperation. European Urban and Regional Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 153-171. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776403010002004 ; 28. Perkmann M., 2007. Policy entrepreneurship and multilevel governance: a comparative study of European cross-border regions. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, vol. 25, pp. 861-879. https://doi.org/10.1068/c60m ; 29. Popescu G., 2008. The conflicting logics of cross-border reterritorialization: Geopolitics of Euroregions in Eastern Europe. Political Geography, vol. 27, pp. 418-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2008.03.002 ; 30. Rácz Sz., 2016. Horvátország térszerkezete [The spatial structure of Croatia]. Tér és Társadalom, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 81-104. https://doi.org/10.17649/TET.30.3.2792 ; 31. Rácz Sz., 2017. Main characteristics of Hungarian-Croatian political relations and Cross-border Co-operations. Geographica Pannonica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 54-67. https://doi.org/10.5937/GeoPan1701054R ; 32. Rechnitzer J., 2012. A régiók az elmúlt 20 év területi politikájában [Regions in the past 20 years of territorial policy]. [in:] Z. Bajmócy, I. Lengyel, G. Málovics (eds.) Regionális innovációs képesség, versenyképesség és fenntarthatóság. JATEPress, Szeged, pp. 175-194. ; 33. RSRS, 2007. Revizijsko poročilo o INTERREG IIIA Slovenija-Avstrija. Proces izbora projektov v obdobju od 2004 do 2006 [Revision report about INTERREG IIIA Slovenia-Austria. Process of project selection in the period of 2004-2006]. Računsko sodišče Republike Slovenije, http://www.rs-rs.si/rsrs/rsrs.nsf/I/K8360171D0B911190C12573590054E715/$file/Interreg-IIIA.pdf [4 April 2016]. ; 34. Scott J. W., 2013. Territorial Cohesion, Cross-border Co-operation and the EU's Political Identity: A Brief Observation. [in:] I. Pálné Kovács, J. Scott, Z. Gál (eds.) Territorial Cohesion in Europe - For the 70th anniversary of the Transdanubian Research Institute. Institute for Regional Studies, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pécs, pp. 73-84. ; 35. Scott J. W., Liikanen I., 2010. Civil Society and the 'Neighbourhood' - Europeanization through Cross-Border Cooperation? [in:] J. W. Scott, I. Liikanen (eds.) European Neighbourhood through Civil Society Networks? Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2010.498628 ; 36. Svensson S., Ocskay G., 2016. Overview of the EGTCs around Hungary. Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives. http://cesci-net.eu/tiny_mce/uploaded/EGTC_Overview_CESCI_.pdf [24 October 2016]. ; 37. Törvény, 2011. 2011. évi CLXXXIX. törvény Magyarország helyi önkormányzatairól [Act 2011: CLXXXIX on local governments of Hungary]. Text applicable on 18 January 2018. ; 38.van Houtum H., 2000. An Overview of European Geographical Research on Borders and Border Regions. Journal of Borderland Studies, vol. XV, no. 1, pp. 57-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2000.9695542 ; 39. VÁTI, 2004. Az INTERREG Magyarországon - Kézikönyv [The INTERREG in Hungary - Handbook]. Technical Assistance for the INTERREG Programme and Project Development EuropeAid/116361/D/SV/HU. ; 40. Zimmermann F. M., Kubik K., 2003. Grenzüberschreitende Kooperationen: Der Raum Graz - Maribor [Cross-border cooperation: the Graz - Maribor area]. Ländlicher Raum, vol. 3, https://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/dam/jcr:f5e2c70d-7507-44dd-bba5-6254351bd795/Zimmermann_end2%5B1%5D.pdf [10 March 2016]. ; 41. Zakon, 2007. Zakon o lokalni samoupravi [Local government act]. Uradni list RS 94/2007, Pročiščeno besedilo. ; 42. Zakon, 2009. Zakon o razvojni podpori Pomurski regiji v obdobju 2010-2017 [Pomurje region development subsidy act in the 2010-2017 period]. (ZRPPR1015), Uradni list RS 87/2009, 82/2015. ; 43. Zakon, 2011. Zakon o spodbujanju skladnega regionalnega razvoja [Act on promoting harmonious regional development]. (ZSRR-2), neuradno prečiščeno besedilo št. 2. Uradni list RS 20/2011, 57/2012, 46/2016. ; 44. Zakon, 2014. Zakon o regionalnom razvoju [Regional development act]. Narodne novine 174/2014.


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:



File size 0,6 MB ; application/octet-stream

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:72535 ; 1429-7132 (print) ; 2300-8547 (online) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2018.35.7


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:


Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



This page uses 'cookies'. More information