Object structure

A place-based perspective on marine and coastal space


Europa XXI 36 (2019)


Gee, Kira : Autor ORCID ; Siedschlag, Daniela : Autor ORCID



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



Każdy numer posiada własny tytuł.

Type of object:


Subject and Keywords:

emotional attachment ; meaning ; place ; place-making ; quality of place ; space


Over recent years the sea has experienced re-interpretation as marine space, or more specifically as marine spatial planning (MSP) space. This article uses the concept of place as a contrasting interpretation to space, referring to place-making as a metaphor for the various ways in which meaning is created in the sea. As expressions of an intimate connection between experienced materiality and symbolism, places (unlike space) are never abstract, but always carry emotional dimensions. Place attachment can be the result of everyday profe ssional links, recreational activities, or living by the sea, and arises despite the greater intangibility of locations in the sea. As a result of their greater physical intangibility, places in the sea may require more frequent (re-)making than places on land, pointing to the inherent importance (and value in their own right) of the associated (socio-cultural) processes of place-making. The ability to engage in place-making is thus an important avenue for expressing place-based values, an understanding which could be used to enrich marine spatial planning processes. Focusing more on the intimate connections people have with places in the sea and how quality of place matters to them could turn MSP into an enabler of place-making, becoming more of a rich and continuous dialogue around the multiple ways in which people interact with and value the sea.


Allmendinger, P., Haughton, G., Knieling, J., & Othengrafen, F. (2015). Soft spaces, planning and the emerging practices of territorial governance. In P., Allmendinger, G., Haughton, J., Knieling, F., Othengrafen (Eds.). Soft Spaces in Europe: Re-negotiating governance, boundaries and borders (pp. 3-22). Routledge.
Cantrill, J., & Senecah, S. (2001). Using the 'Sense of Self-in-Place' Construct in the Context of Environmental Policy-Making and Landscape Planning. Environmental Science and Policy, 4, 185-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1462-9011(01)00023-5
Cobb, H., & Ransley, J. (2019). Moving beyond the "scape" to being in the (watery) world, wherever. In T.J., King & G. Robinson (Eds.). At home on the waves. Human habitation of the sea from the Mesolithic to today (pp. 17-33). Oxford: Berghahn.
Cosgrove, D.E. (1984). Social formation and symbolic landscape. London, Sydney: Croom Helm.
Davoudi, S., & Strange I. (2009). Space and place in the twentieth century planning: An analytical framework and an historical review. In S., Davoudi & I., Strange (Eds.). Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning (Chapter 1, pp. 7-42). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203886502
Döring, M., & Ratter, B.M.W. (2015). 'Heimat' as a boundary object? Exploring the potentialities of a boundary object to instigate productive science-stakeholder interaction in North Frisia (Germany). Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 448-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.08.009
EC (2014). Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 Establishing a Framework for Maritime Spatial Planning. Official Journal of the European Union, L 257/135.
Ehler, C., Zaucha, J., & Gee, K. (2019). Maritime/Marine Spatial Planning at the Interface of Research and Practice. J., Zaucha & K., Gee, (Eds.). Maritime Spatial Planning, Past, Present, Future (pp. 1-21). London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98696-8_1
Ehler, C., & Douvere, F. (2009). Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme, IOC Manual and Guides no. 53, ICaM Dossier no. 6, Paris: UNESCO.
Eisenhauer, B.W., Krannich, R.S., & Blahna, D.J. (2000). Attachments to special places on public lands: an analysis of activities, reason for attachments, and community connections. Society and Natural Resources, 13(5), 421-441. https://doi.org/10.1080/089419200403848
Farmer, A., Mee, L., Langmead, O., Cooper, P., Kannen, A., Kershaw, P., & Cherrier, V. (2012). The Ecosystem Approach in Marine Management. EU FP7 KNOWSEAS Project. ISBN 0‐9529089‐5‐6.
Finke, G., Gee, K., Kreiner, A., Amunyela, M., & Braby, R. (2020). The Introduction of Marine Spatial Planning in Namibia. Manuscript submitted for publication in Marine Policy.
Flannery, W., Healy, N., & Luna, M. (2018). Exclusion and Non-participation in Marine Spatial Planning. Marine Policy, 88, 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.11.001
Gee, K. (2010). Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast. Land Use Policy, 27, 185-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.05.003
Gee, K. (2015). Perceptions of the sea and seascapes: Challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Coastal Places Workshop in Hamburg, Germany, 15th - 16th October 2015.
Gee, K., Kannen, A., Adlam, R., Brooks, C., Chapman, M., Cormier, R., Fischer, C., Fletcher, S., Gubbins, M., Shucksmith, R., & Shellock, R. (2017). Identifying culturally significant areas for marine spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management, 136, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.11.026
Greverus, I.-M. (2006). Landschaftsreisen: Imagination - Erfahrung - Repräsentation. ZurÄsthetik der Landschaft. In B., Franzen & S., Krebs (Eds.). Mikroland-schaften/Microlandscapes - Landscape culture on the move (pp. 101-136). Münster: Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte.
Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
Hasse, J. (1999). Zum Verhältnis von Raum und Gefühl in der Anthropogeographie. Geographische Zeitschrift, 87(2), 61-62.
Haughton, G., & Allmendinger, P. (2015). Fluid spatial imaginaries: Evolving estuarial city-regional spaces. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39(5), 857-873. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12211
Healey, P. (1998). Collaborative planning in a stakeholder society. Town Planning Review, 69(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.69.1.h651u2327m86326p
Healey, P. (2010). Making Better Places: the planning project in the twenty-first century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-01379-8
Howard, P.M. (2019). Working grounds, producing places and becoming at home at sea. In T.J., King & G., Robinson (Eds.). At home on the waves. Human habitation of the sea from the Mesolithic to today (pp. 34-61). Oxford: Berghahn.
Hull, R.B., & Stewart, W.P. (1995). The landscape encountered and experienced while hiking. Environment and Behaviour, 27(3), 404-426. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916595273007
Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment: Essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203466025_INTRODUCTION
Ingold, T. (2019). Afterword. In T.J. King & G. Robinson (Eds.). At home on the waves. Human habitation of the sea from the Mesolithic to today (pp. 349-356). Oxford: Berghahn.
Ittelson, W.H., Franck, K.A., & O'Hanlon, T.J. (1976). The nature of environmental experience. In S., Wapner, S.B., Cohen & B., Kaplan (Eds.). Experiencing the environment (pp. 187-206). New York: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4259-5_9
Janßen, H., Varjopuro, R., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., & Nieminen, H. (2018). Imbalances in Interaction for Transboundary Marine Spatial Planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region. Ocean and Coastal Management, 161C, 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.05.008
Jay, S. (2010). Built at sea: marine management and the construction of marine spatial planning. Town Planning Review, 81(2), 173-191. https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.2009.33
Jay, S. (2018). The shifting sea: from soft space to lively space. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 20(4), 450-467. https://doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2018.1437716
Jessop, B., Brenner, N., & Jones, M. (2008). Theorizing socio-spatial relations. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26(3), 389-401. https://doi.org/10.1068/d9107
Jorgensen, B.S., & Stedman, R. (2001). Sense of place as an attitude: lakeshore property owners' attitudes toward their properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0226
Kaschuba, W. (1985). Alltagsweltanalyse in der regionalen Ethnographie: Kulturanthropologische Gemeindeforschung. In Analyse und Interpre tion der Alltagswelt. Lebensweltforschung und ihre Bedeutung für die Geographie, Bamberger Protokolle 45. Köln: Thomas-Morus-Akademie Bensberg, Katholische Akademie in der Erzdiözese.
Kearns, R., & Collins, D. (2012). Feeling for the Coast: The Place of Emotion in Resistance to Residential Development. Social & Cultural Geography, 13(8), 937-955. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2012.730150
Liquete, C., Piroddi, C., Drakou, E. G., Gurney, L., Katsanevakis, S., Charef, A., & Egoh, B. (2013). Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review. PLoS One, 8, pp. 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067737
Lowenthal, D. (1978). Finding valued landscapes. Progress in Human Geography, 2, 373-418. https://doi.org/10.1177/030913257800200301
MacKinnon, I., Brennan, R. (2012). Belonging to the sea. Exploring the cultural roots of maritime conflict on Gaelic speaking islands in Scotland and Ireland. Scottish Crofting Federation and Scottish Association for Marine Science.
Merriam Webster (2019). Culture. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture
McKinley E., Acott, T., & Stojanovic, T. (2019). Socio-cultural Dimensions of Marine Spatial Planning. In J., Zaucha & K., Gee (Eds.). Maritime Spatial Planning, Past, Present, Future (pp. 151-174). London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98696-8_7
Morf, A., Cedergren, E., Gee, K., Kull, M., & Eliasen, S. (2019). Lessons, stories and ideas on how to integrate Land-Sea Interactions into MSP. Stockholm: Nordregio.
Muir, R. (1999). Approaches to landscape. London: Macmillan Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-27243-3
Pyć, D. (2019). The Role of the Law of the Sea in Marine Spatial Planning. In J., Zaucha & K., Gee (Eds.). Maritime Spatial Planning, Past, Present, Future (pp. 375-395). London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98696-8_16
Ratter, B.M.W., & Gee, K. (2012). Heimat: A German concept of regional perception and identity as a basis for coastal management in the Wadden Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 68, 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.013
Ratter, B.M.W. (2018). Geography of Small Islands: Outposts of Globalisation. Hamburg: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63869-0
Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion.
Saar, M., & Palang, H. (2009). The dimensions of place meanings. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 3, 3. http://doi.org/10.12942/lrlr-2009-3
Siedschlag, D. (2018). The concept of Emotional Vulnerability - a contribution to hazard research using the island of Pellworm as an example. Dissertation. Retrieved from https://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2018/9227/
Steinberg, P. (2014). Foreword: On Thalassography. In J., Anderson & K., Peters (Eds.). Water Worlds: Human Geographies of the Ocean (pp. xiii-xvii). Farnham: Ashgate.
Tuan, Y-F. (1975). Place: An experiential perspective. Geographical Review, 65, 151-165. https://doi.org/10.2307/213970
Tuan, Y-F. (1977). Space and place: the perspective of experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tucholsky, K. (1929/2011). Deutschland, Deutschland über alles. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.
UNESCO (2019). Intangible Cultural Heritage. Retrieved from https://ich.unesco.org/en/what-is-intangible-heritage-00003
Urquhart, J., & Acott, T. G. (2013). Re-connecting and Embedding Food in Place: Rural Development and Inshore Fisheries in Cornwall, UK. Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 357-364 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2013.09.004
Wardenga, U. (2002). Räume der Geographie - zu Raumbegriffen im Geographieunterricht. Geographie heute, 23(200), 8-11.
Wickham-Jones, C. (2019). Seamless Archaeology. The evolving use of archaeology in the study of seascapes. In T.J., King & G., Robinson (Eds.). At home on the waves. Human habitation of the sea from the Mesolithic to today (pp. 79-103). Oxford: Berghahn.
Williams, D.R., & Stewart, S.I. (1998). Sense of place: an elusive concept that is finding a home in ecosystem management. Journal of Forestry, 5, 18-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/jof/96.5.18
Zaucha, J. (2019). Can Classical Location Theory Apply to Sea Space? In J., Zaucha & K., Gee (Eds.). Maritime Spatial Planning, Past, Present, Future (pp. 97-119). London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98696-8_5


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:


Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 0,4 MB ; application/octet-stream

Resource Identifier:

1429-7132 (print) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2019.36.6


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.





Citation style: