Object structure


Badania georadarowe kemów jako przykład możliwości zastosowania metod geofizycznych do badania form zbudowanych z drobnoziarnistych osadów klastycznych = GPR surveys of kame hills as an example of geophysical methods being applied to the study of forms built of fine grained clastic sediments


Przegląd Geograficzny T. 92 z. 3 (2020)


Lamparski, Piotr ORCID


Lamparski, Piotr : Autor



Place of publishing:


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24 cm

Subject and Keywords:

kames ; ground penetrating radar ; geophysical research ; clastic sediments ; Polish Lowland


The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method potentially offers many possibilities for fast and reliable lithostratigraphic sediment models to be developed. From a cognitive point of view, this represents a major simplification and shortening of procedures with which information about sediments can be obtained. And from the point of view of the economy of operations, there can be a significant reduction in costs and time of research in shallow geology and the stratigraphy of areas where unconsolidated clastic sediments are of superficial occurrence. Also noteworthy is the possibility for the results of GPR surveys to be deployed in support of geological mapping, as well as in the shallow exploration of resources and hydrogeological studies.The most major advantage of the GPR method related to the possibility of the structure of forms being observed in full shape. In the absence of large outcrops, geophysical prospection of geomorphological forms is helpful, insofar as we are able to translate the results of geophysical surveys into the actual lithostratigraphic system of sediments building a specific form.Against that background, the research presented in this article forms part of the work to develop radar stratigraphy, as an important support for direct geological research (Huggenberger et al., 1994; Van Overmeeren, 1998; Beres et al., 1999, Overgaard and Jakobsen, 2001; Jakobsen and Overgaard, 2002; Neal, 2004; Lejzerowicz et al., 2014; Żuk and Sambrook Smith, 2015; Lejzerowicz et al., 2018). It also points to the research potential of the GPR method in determining the genesis of form. The discussion on the way kames form has been going on in the literature for years (Niewiarowski, 1959; 1961; Karczewski, 1971; Klajnert, 1978; Jaksa, 2003; Terpiłowski, 2008). The studies presented here do not suffice to allow the matter to be determined comprehensively, even though they do provide for verification of the opinions of previous researchers.The area forming the subject of this article is defined by Niewiarowski (1959) as the dead ice zone because of the characteristic set of forms (dead ice moraines, kames and eskers). Like modern researchers (Terpiłowski, 2008), Niewiarowski points to the importance of sub-Quaternary surface elevations in the formation of cracks in the ice sheet, with this leading on to the formation of kame hills above such elevations. This would also seem to have been one of the reasons for the formation in the mass of ice of lakes whose filling with sediment and melting ice walls took the form of kames.The great advantage of the GPR method lies in its ability to recognise macrostructural sediment patterns in glacilimic forms. This diagnosis allows for the high-probability assessment of the genesis of form, especially in the context of its position being determined in the marginal zone of the ice sheet. Also looking extremely promising is the capacity for the thickness of fine clastic sediments lying on till to be determined using GPR. It allows for the determination of the way in which a given form is rooted.Described as they are in brief only, test results for selected sites serve to confirm the great usefulness of the GPR method in the recognition of shallow lithostratigraphy of clastic sediments. Nevertheless, this should not be the only method used to recognise the geological structure of forms and sediments. Significant interpretation ambiguities mean that the GPR method should act in support of direct lithostratigraphic research, not merely serving as an alternative to it. GPR surveys offer a depiction particularly close to the real one – of sediment present in homogeneous sediments in relation to electrical parameters. Sediments ideal for GPR surveys would for example be fine dry sands or silts – and it is precisely these sediments that built most of the investigated kame forms.


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