An integrated, holistic analysis of the avian jaw apparatus within the system of avian cranial kinesis shows a complex series of movements of the two jaws, rather than just a simple opening and closing of both jaws. Because of the complex arrangement of the jaw muscles, birds have achieved different adaptive configurations of these muscles for various movement combinations. Specialization of the several jaw muscles are correlated, nevertheless, with the different possible movements of both jaws, such as the evolution of the M. ethmomandibularis in parrots for independent raising of the lower jaw and the M. pterygoideus retractor in several avian groups for independent lowering of the upper jaw.
|Avian cranial kinesis revisited / Bock, Walter Joseph (1933- )||2020-10-02|
Homberger, Dominique G.
Lebreton, Jean-Dominique (1950– )
Lokki, Heikki Saurola, Pertti (1938– )
Kania, Wojciech Maria (1943– ) Busse, Przemysław (1937– )
Buckland, Stephen T. (1955– ) Baillie, Stephen R.
Underhill, Leslie Gordon
Smith, David R. Anderson, David Raymond (1942– )