Title: Pomniki narodowe w przestrzeni miejskiej w (środkowej) Europie drugiej połowy XIX i początków XX w.


Makała, Rafał (1967- )

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National monuments in the urban environment in (Central) Europe in the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries ; Architektura w mieście, architektura dla miasta : przestrzeń publiczna w miastach ziem polskich w "długim" dziewiętnastym wieku


Łupienko, Aleksander (1980- ) : Editor ; Zabłocka-Kos, Agnieszka (1957- ) : Editor ; Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Historii im. Tadeusza Manteuffla


Instytut Historii PAN

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p. 27-45 : ill. (some color) ; 24 cm ; Abstract in English


National monuments were one of the most important factors that shaped representative, elegant urban spaces in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and as such, they enjoyed spectacularly dynamic growth at that time. Even though they had existed since antiquity in the form of sculptural and architectural work, they began to take on a new meaning in the period of the formation of new nations and nation-states. However, the forms of monuments established in the early modern period could not respond to the challenge posed by the scale of urban planning of the nineteenth century. What was also important for the development of new monumental forms and the transformation of old ones was the problem of the emergence of a new visual language that made it possible to communicate with a broad audience. In these circumstances, experiments with forms were undertaken in order to create a new formula of monument that would be able to meet both the challenge of creating a new type of dominant structure within an urban space, and the new needs of communication with the audience. Even though a majority of national monuments created in the nineteenth century had the traditional form of a figurative monument, the art of monuments became an area of highly interesting artistic experiments. The crowning achievement of dynamic and varied development of monumental forms in the nineteenth century was a large architectural layout in which monuments were but an element of the complex whole, and the monumental functions were also performed by architectural objects which in a strict sense were not monuments.

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Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:140635 ; 978-83-65880-53-6


IH PAN, call no. II.14682 ; IH PAN, call no. II.14681 Podr. ; click here to follow the link



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Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license

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Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Institute of History PAS





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