Title: Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) of forest ecosystems. 1, Density, biomass and production


Makulec, Grzegorz

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Density, biomass and production ; Enchytraeidae of forest ecosystems


Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Ekologii


Polish Scientific Publishers

Place of publishing:



Pages 9-56 : illustrations ; 24 cm ; Bibliographical references (pages 53-56) ; Abstract in Polish

Type of object:



In the two-year studies, the species composition was determined and the changes in density and biomass were analysed for Enchytraeidae inhabiting four forest ecosystems. In all these ecosystems Cognettia sphagnetorum accounted for 68 to 98% of the total density and for 71 to 98% of the total biomass of this group. Production of the dominant species and of the species sexually reproducing was estimated. In general, C. sphagnetorum produced biomass of an energy content ranging from 17.3 to 94.4 kJ · m-2 · year-1, depending on the season and plant community. The P : B ratio for this species varied from 2.4 to 3.8.


1. Abrahamsen G. 1969 - Sampling design in studies of population densities in Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) - Oikos, 20: 54-66.
2. Abrahamsen G. 1970 - Statistical analysis of population density data of soil animals, with particular reference to Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) - Oikos, 21: 276-284.
3. Abrahamsen G. 1972 - Ecological study of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in Norwegian coniferous forest soils - Pedobiologia, 12: 26-82.
4. Christensen B. 1959 - Asexual reproduction in the Enchytraeidae (Olig.) - Nature, Lond. 184: 1159-1160.
5. Czerwiński Z., Roo-Zielińska E., Czerwińska K. 1974 - Gleby rezerwatu Grabowy w Puszczy Kampinoskiej [Soils of the "Grabowy" reservation in the Kampinos Forest] - Phytocoenosis, 3: 17-43.
6. Dash M. C., Cragg J. B. 1972 - Ecology of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in Canadian Rocky Mountain soils - Pedobiologia, 12: 323-335.
7. Dozsa-Farkas K. 1973a - Some preliminary data of the frost tolerance of Enchytraeidae - Opusc. zool. 11: 95-97.
8. Dozsa-Farkas K. 1973b - Saisondynamische Untersuchungen des Enchytraeiden-Besatzes im Boden eines ungarischen Quercetum petraeae cervis - Pedobiologia, 13: 361-367.
9. Górny M. 1975a - Metody zoocenologicznej oceny wazonkowców (Enchytraeidae) drzewostanów sosnowych o zróżnicowanej okrywie gleby [Procedures of zoocoenological appraisal of Enchytraeidae in pine stands with diverse soil cover] - Polskie Tow. Glebozn., Pr. Kom. Nauk., Kom. Biol. Gleby (III), Warszawa, 16: 83-97.
10. Górny M. 1975b - Zooekologia gleb leśnych {Zooecology of forest soils] – Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warszawa, 311 pp.
11. Huhta V. (in press) - Mortality in enchytraeid and lumbricial populations caused by hard frosts (In: Proc. Symp. Adaptations of Animals on Winter Conditions - Moscow 17-21 April 1978) - Moskva.
12. Huhta V., Koskiennemi A. 1975 - Numbers, biomass and community respiration of soil invertebrates in spruce forests at two latitudes in Finland - Ann. Zool. Fenn. 12: 164-182.
13. Kasprzak K. 1975 - Wazonkowce (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) zespołu grądowego (Querceto-Carpinetum medioeuropeum Tx. 1936) w Wielkopolskim Parku Narodowym [Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in the forest association Querceto-Carpinetum medioeuropeum Tx. 1936 in the National Park of Great Poland] - Fragm. faun. 8: 115-128.
14. Kitazawa Y. 1971 - Biological regionality of the soil fauna and its function in forest ecosystem types (In:·Productivity of forest ecosystems, ecology and conservation, Ed. P. Duvigneaud) - UNESCO, Paris, 485-498.
15. Macfadyen A. 1967 - Methods of investigation of productivity of invertebrates in terrestrial ecosystem (In: Secondary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems (principies and methods). Ed. K. Petrusewicz) - Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa-Kraków, 383-412.
16. McNeill S., Lawton J. H. 1970 - Animal production and respiration in animal populations - Nature, Lond. 225: 472-474.
17. Moller F. 1969 - Okologische Untersuchungen an terricolen Enchytraeiden Populationen - Pedobiologia, 9: 114-119.
18. Nielsen C. O. 1955 - Studies on Enchytraeidae. 5. Factors causing seasonal fluctuations in numbers - Oikos, 6: 153-169.
19. Nielsen C. O. 1961 - Respiratory metabolism of some populations of enchytraeid worms and free living nematodes - Oikos, 12: 17-55.
20. Nielsen C. O., Christensen B. 1959 – The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of European species - Nat. jutl. 8-9: 1-160.
21. Nurminen M. 1967 - Ecology of enchytraeids (Oligochaeta) in Finnish coniferous forest soil - Ann. Zool. fenn. 4: 147-157.
22. O'Connor F. B. 1955 - Extraction of enchytraeid worms from a coniferous forest soil - Nature, Lond. 175: 815-816.
23. O'Connor F. B. 1957 - An ecological study of the enchytraeid worm population of a coniferous forest soil - Oikos, 8: 161-199.
24. O'Connor F. B. 1962 - The extraction of Enchytraeidae from soil (In: Progress in soil zoology, Ed. P. W. Murphy) - Butterworths, London, 279-285.
25. O'Connor F. B. 1963 - Oxygen consumption and population metabolism of some populations of Enchytraeidae from North Wales (In: Soil organisms, Eds. J. Doeksen, J. van der Drift) - North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 32-48.
26. O'Connor F. B. 1971 - The enchytreids (In: Methods of study in quantitative soil ecology: population, production and energy flow. IBP Handbook No. 18, Ed. J. Phillipson) – Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford-Edinburgh, 83-106.
27. Persson T., Lohm U. 1977 - Energetical significance of the annelids and arthropods in a Swedish grassland soil - Ecol. Bull. No. 23: 1-212.
28. Petrusewicz K. 1967 - Suggested list of more important concepts in productivity studies (definitions and symbols) (In: Secondary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems (principles and methods), Ed. K. Petrusewicz) - Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa-Kraków, 51-58.
29. Petrusewicz K., Macfadyen A. 1970 - Productivity of terrestrial animals - Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford-Edinburgh, 189 pp.
30. Phillipson J., Abel R., Steel J., Woodell S. R. Y. 1979 - Enchytraeid numbers, biomass and respiratory metabolism in a beach woodland - Wytham Woods, Oxford - Oecologia (Berl.), 43: 173-193.
31. Springett J. A. 1963 - The distribution of three species of Enchytraeidae in different soils (In: Soil organisms. Eds. J. Doeksen, J. van der Drift) - North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 414-419.
32. Springett J. A. 1970 - The distribution and life histories of some moorland Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) - J. anim. Ecol. 39: 725-737.
33. Springett J. A., Brittain J. E., Springett B. P. 1970 - Vertical movement of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in moorland soils - Oikos., 21: 16-21.
34. Stachurski A., Zimka J. R. 1975 - Leaf fall and the rate of litter decay in some forest habitats - Ekol. pol. 23: 103-108.
35. Standen V. 1973 - The production and respiration of an enchytraeid population in blanket bog - J. anim. Ecol. 42: 219-245.
36. Traczyk H., Traczyk T. 1965 - Charakterystyka fitosocjologiczna terenów badawczych Instytutu Ekologii PAN w Dziekanowie Leśnym (Puszcza Kampinoska) [Phytosociological characteristics of the research areas of the Institute of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences at Dziekanów Leśny (Kampinos Forest near Warsaw] - Fragm. flor. geobot. 11: 547-562.
37. Zimka R. J., Stachurski A. 1976 - Vegetation as modifier of carbon and nitrogen transfer to soil in various types of forest ecosystems - Ekol. pol. 24: 493-514.


Ekologia Polska





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:79265 ; ISSN 0420-9036


MiIZ PAN, call no. P.2840 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Object collections:

Last modified:

Feb 4, 2021

In our library since:

Aug 27, 2019

Number of object content hits:


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:




Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information