Title: Park in the periphery: Land use and land cover change and forest fragmentation in and around Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India


Geographia Polonica Vol. 93 No. 1 (2020)



Place of publishing:



24 cm


This study documents the spatio-temporal land use and land cover dynamics of Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWLS) in Manipur, India. Landsat imageries at three points of time spanning 38 years (1978, 2000 and 2016) were taken into account. Supervised image classification techniques were employed. Fragstats software was used to derive five landscape metrics, namely, class area (CA), number of patches (NP), largest patch index (LPI), percentage of landscape (PLAND) and mean patch size (MPS), to quantitatively assess the level of landscape fragmentation in the YLWLS. Dense and moderately dense forests decreased markedly during 1978-2000 from 46.5% to 40% and 38% to 28% of the total geographical area, respectively. However, between 2000 and 2016, the sanctuary managed to gain 840 ha of dense forest through various afforestation activities. The overall change in YLWLS during 1978-2016 indicates a substantial transition of dense and moderately dense forests.


Alavalap at i, J.R.R., Z arin, D.J. (2004). Neotropical working forests: For what and for whom. In D.J. Zarin, J.R.R. Alavalapati, F. Putz, M. Schmink (Eds.), Working forest in the Neotropics: Conservation through sustainable management? (pp. 279-289). New York: Columbia University Press. https://doi.org/10.7312/zari12906-017 ; Carranza, M.I., Hoyos, L., Frate, L., Acosta, A.T.R., Cabido, M. (2015). Measuring forest fragmentation using multitemporal forest cover map: Forest loss and spatial pattern analysis in the Gran Chaco, central Argentina. Landscape and Urban Planning, 143, 238-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.08.006 ; Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J. (1995). Survival without dispersers: Seedling recruitment under parents. Conservation Biology, 9, 675-678. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09030675.x ; Coops, N.C., White, J. D., Scott, N.A. (2004). Estimating fragmentation effects on simulated forest net primary productivity derived from satellite imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(4), 819-838. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116031000115094 ; Dale, V.H. (1997). The relationship between land use change and climate change. Ecological Applications, 7(3), 753-769. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0753:trbluc]2.0.co;2 ; Deb Roy, S., Jackson, P. (1993). Mayhem in Manas: The threats to India's wildlife reserves. In E. Kemf (Ed.), Indigenous peoples and protected areas: The law of Mother Earth (pp.156-161), London: Earthscan. ; Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B. (2007). Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: A synthesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16(3), 265-280. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00287.x ; Forman, R.T.T., Godron, M. (1986). Landscape ecology. New York: Wiley. ; Fredericksen, N.J., Fredericksen, T.S. (2002). Terrestrial wildlife responses to logging and fire in a Bolivian tropical humid forest. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11(1), 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014065510554 ; Ghazoul, J. (2005). Pollen and seed dispersal among dispersed plants. Biological Reviews, 80(3), 413-443. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1464793105006731 ; Ghosh-Harihar, M., An, R., Athreya, R., Borthakur, U., Chanchani, P., Chetry, D., Datta, A., Harihar, A., Karanth, K.K., Mariyam, D., Mohan, D., Malvika Onial, Uma Ramakrishnan, Robin, V.V., Saxena, A., Shahabuddin, G., Thatte, P.,Vijay, V., Wacker, K., Mathur, V.B., Pimm, S.L., Price, T.D. (2019). Protected areas and biodiversity conservation in India. Biological Conservation, 237, 114-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.06.024 ; Gibson, D.J., Collins, S.L., Good, R.E. (1988). Ecosystem fragmentation of oak-pine forest in New Jersey Pinelands. Forest Ecology Management, 25(2), 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(88)90123-5 ; Heydon, M.J., Bulloh, P. (1997). Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2), 484-496. https://doi.org/10.2307/2404892 ; Howe, H.F., Smallwood, J. (1982). Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 13, 201-228. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001221 ; Jetz, W., Wilcove, D., Dobson, A. (2007). Projected impacts of climate change and land use change on global diversity of birds. PLoS Biology, 5(6), 1211-1218. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050157 ; Kobayashi, Y., Okada, K., Mori, A.S. (2019). Reconsidering biodiversity hotspots based on the rate of historical land use change. Biological Conservation, 233, 268-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.02.032 ; Korner, C., Ohsawa, M. (2005). Mountain systems. In Ecosystems and human wellbeing: Current state and trends (pp. 681-716). Vol. 1. Washington, D.C: Island Press. ; Lambin, E.F., Meyfroidt, P. (2010). Land use transitions: Socio-ecological feedback versus socio-economic change. Land Use Policy, 27(2). 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.09.003 ; Lele, N., Joshi, P.K. (2009). Analyzing deforestation rates, spatial forest cover changes and identifying critical areas of forest cover changes in North-East India during 1972-1999. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 156(1-4), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0472-6 ; McGarigal, K., Cushman, S.A., Ene, E. (2012). FRAGSTATS v4: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical and continuous maps. Amherst: Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from //www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html ; Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Notification. (2016). The Gazette of India: Extraordinary part II-sec. 3 (ii) (pp. 14-28). New Delhi. ; Nepal, S.K., Weber, K.E. (1993). Struggle for existence, park people conflict in the Royal Chitwan National Park Area. Bangkok, Thailand: Division of Human Resource and Development, Asian Instate of Technology. ; Onojeghuo, A.O., Blackburn, G.A. (2011). Forest transition in an ecologically important region: patterns and causes for landscape dynamics in the Niger Delta. Ecological Indicators, 11(5), 1437-1446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.03.017 ; Padoch, C., Coffey, K., Mertz, O., Leisz, S.J., Fox, J., Wadley, R.L. (2007). The demise of swidden in Southeast Asia? Local realities and regional ambiguities. Danish Journal of Geography 107(1), 29-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2007.10801373 ; Raman, T.R.S. (2001). Effect of slash-and-burn shifting cultivation on rainforest birds in Mizoram, Northeast India. Conservation Biology, 15(3), 685-698. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523- 1739.2001.015003685.x ; Reddy, C.S., Saranya, K.R.L., Jha, C.S., Dadhwal, V.K., Murthy, Y.K. (2017). Earth observation data for habitat monitoring in protected areas of India. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 8, 114-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2017.08.004 ; Reed, R.A., Johnson-Barnard, J., Baker, W.L. (1996). Fragmentation of a forested Rocky Mountain landscape, 1950-1993. Biological Conservation, 75(3), 267-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(95)00069-0 ; Rodrigues, A.S.L., Andelman, S.J., Bakarr, M.I., Boltani, L., Brooks, T.M., Cowling, R.M., Fishpool, L.D.C., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gaston, K.J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J.S., Marquet, P.A., Pilgrim, J.D., Pressey, R.L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S.N., Underhill, L.G., Waller, R.W., Watts, M.E.J., Yan, X. (2004). Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428, pp. 640-643. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02422 ; Rozendaal, D.M.A., Bongers, F., Aide, T.M., Alvarez-Dávila, E., Ascarrunz, N., Balvanera, P., … CalvoRodriguez, S. (2019). Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests. Science Advances, 5(3), eaau3114. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau3114 ; Saikia, A. (1998). Shifting cultivation, population and sustainability: The changing context of north-east India. Development, 41(3), 97-100. ; Saikia, A., Hazarika, R., Sahariah, D. (2013). Land use/land-cover change and fragmentation in the Nameri Tiger Reserve, India. Geografisk Tidsskrift - Danish Journal of Geography, 113(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2013.782991 ; Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., Wall, D.H. (2000). Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 1770-1774. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5459.1770 ; Shankar, U., Tripathi, A.K. (2017). Rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer: Physiognomy, floristics and diversity in 'lowland rainforests' of Meghalaya, India. Plant Diversity, 39(1), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2016.10.003 ; Sharma, C.K., Sarma, I. (2014). Issues of conservation and livelihood in a forest village of Assam. International Journal of Rural Management, 10(1), 47-68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973005214526502 ; Sharma, K. (2019). Urbanization induced land use-land cover changes in the Manipur Valley and surrounding hills: A landscape metrics spproach. In A. Saikia and P. Thapa (Eds.), Environmental change in the Himalayan Region (pp. 137-155). Springer Nature Switzerland AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03362-0_7 ; Sharma, K., Robeson, S.R., Thapa, P., Saikia, A. (2017). Landuse/ land-cover change and forest fragmentation in the Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan. Physical Geography, 38(1), 18-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2016.1248212 ; Sharma, K., Saikia, A. (2018). How green was my valley: forest canopy density in relation to topography and anthropogenic effects in Manipur valley, India. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 118(2), 137-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2018.1495090 ; Sharma, S., Roy, P.S. (20 07). Forest fragmentation in the Himalaya: a central Himalayan case study. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 14(2), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504500709469720 ; Tang, J., Wang, L., Yao, Z. (2008). Analyses of urban landscape dynamics using multi temporal satellite images: A comparison of two petroleum-oriented cities. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87(4), 269-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.06.011 ; Tawnenga, Shankar, U., Tripathi, R.S. (1996). Evaluating second year cropping on jhum fallows in Mizoram, north-eastern India - Phytomass dynamics and primary productivity. Journal of Biosciences, 21(4), 563-575. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02703219 ; Thong, P., Sahoo, U.K., Pebam, R., Thangjam, U. (2019). Spatial and temporal dynamics of shifting cultivation in Manipur, Northeast India based on time-series satellite data. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 14, 126-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2019.03.001 ; Tilman, D., Clark, M., Williams, D.R., Kimmel, K., Polasky, S., Packer, C. (2017). Future threats to biodiversity and pathways to their prevention. Nature, 546(7656), 73-81. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22900 ; Veldhuis, M.P., Ritchie, M.E., Ogutu, J.O., Morrison, T.A., Beale, C.M., Estes, A.B., Mwakilema, W., Ojwang, G.O., Parr, C.L., Probert, J., Wargute, P.W., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Olff, H. (2019). Cross-boundary human impacts compromise the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem. Science, 363(6434), 1424-1428. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav0564 ; Vitousek, P.M., Mooney, H.A., Lubchenco, L., Melillo, J.M. (1997). Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494-499. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.494 ; Walelign S.Z., Nielsen M.R., Jacobsen J.B. (2019). Roads and livelihood activity choices in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0213089. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213089 ; Wang, Y., Mitchell, B.R., Nugranad-Marzilli, J., Bonynge G., Zhou, Y., Shriver, G. (2009). Remote sensing of land-cover change and landscape context of the National Parks: A case study of the Northeast Temperate Network. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113(7), 1453-1461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.09.017 ; Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., Sleeter, R.R., Soulard, C.E. (2014). Land-use threats and protected areas: A scenario-based, landscape level approach. Land, 3, 362-389. https://doi.org/10.3390/land3020362 ; Wright, S.J. (2003). The myriad consequences of hunting for vertebrates and plants in tropical forest. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 6(1-2), 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1078/1433-8319-00043


Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:



File size 0,3 MB

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:118511 ; oai:rcin.org.pl:118511 ; 0016-7282 (print) ; 2300-7362 (online) ; 10.7163/GPol.0165


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information