Object

Title: Bed material extraction and its effects on the forms and processes of the lower Balason River in the Darjeeling Himalayas, India

Creator:

Tamang, Lakpa ; Mandal, Deepak Kumar

Date issued/created:

2015

Resource Type:

Article

Subtitle:

Geographia Polonica - forthcoming

Publisher:

IGiPZ PAN

Place of publishing:

Warszawa

Description:

24 cm

Abstract:

High intensity rains bring about landslides and high surface run‑off in the upper catchment of the Balason River. Huge quantities of weathered materials as sediment load are being deposited in the river’s lower course. The extent and intensity of this bed material extraction have taken such a toll that immediate attention is necessary to reduce the associated effects on the forms and processes of the Balason River’s lower course. In this paper, an attempt has been made to closely analyse the prevailing effects of human interference noticed by the authors during this study. The methodology adopted during this study is field based. The changing cross sections and fluvial characteristic of the river were continuously observed. The extraction of bed materials was done directly from the riverbed and from adjacent flood plains and also from terraces. The extractions are responsible for the prevailing bed erosion and channel diversions because extraction pits are what are left behind. In the long term, if not controlled, the effects would be detrimental to the entire fluvial characteristics of the river.

References:

1. Bravard J.P., Goichot M., Stéphane G., 2013. Geography of sand and gravel mining in the lower Mekong River: First survey and impact assessment. EchoGeo, 26, pp. 1-18. ; 2. De S.K., 2010. A quantitative study of the longitudinal and cross-profiles (1989-1994) of the River Balason in the Darjeeling District of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Geomorphology, vol. 15, no. 1+2, pp. 67-80. ; 3. Dutta M., 1995. River Balason: A study of river behavior under human influence in the foothills of Darjeeling. Himalayan Paryavaran, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 18-21. ; 4. Jana M.M., Dutta M., 1995. Bank erosion: Its nature, causes and impact in river Balason. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 32-48. ; 5. Kondolf G.M., 1994. Geomorphic and environmental effects of instream gravel mining. Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 225-243. ; - ; 6. Kondolf G.M., 1997. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 533-551. ; - ; 7. Lopez J.L., 2004. Channel response to gravel mining activities in mountain rivers. Journal of Mountain Science, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 264-269. ; - ; 8. Martin-Vide J.P., Ferrer-Boix C., Ollero A., 2010. Incision due to gravel mining: Modelling a case study from the Gallego river, Spain. Geomorphology, vol. 117, pp. 261-271. ; - ; 9. Rinaldi M., Wyżga B., Surian N., 2005. Sediment mining in alluvial channels: Physical effects and management perspectives. River Research and Applications, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 805-828. ; - ; 10. Schumm S.A., 1977. The fluvial system. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 338 pp. ; 11. Starkel L., Froehlich W., 2000. Channel changes in mountain valleys of various orders [in:] L. Starkel, S.R. Basu (eds.), Rains, landslides and floods in Darjeeling Himalayas. New Delhi: Indian National Academy of Sciences, pp. 137-141. ; 12. Tamang L., 2013. Quarrying activities along the lower Balason River in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Spatial Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-8. ; 13. Tamang L., Mandal D.K., 2010. Changing fluvial characteristics in the Lower Balason River, West Bengal. Geographical Review of India, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 10-19

Relation:

Geographia Polonica

Volume:

88

Issue:

3

Start page:

393

End page:

405

Format:

File size 2,7 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:50359 ; oai:rcin.org.pl:50359 ; 0016-7282 ; 10.7163/GPol.2015.3

Source:

CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link

Language:

eng

Language of abstract:

eng

Rights:

Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure

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