Object

Title: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in Eighteen-century Alliance Treaties of the Neighbouring Countries, 1720–72

Creator:

Kordel, Jacek

Date issued/created:

2017

Resource Type:

Article : original article

Subtitle:

Acta Poloniae Historica T. 116 (2017) ; The Wealth of Diversity Inter-religious and Inter-confessional Contacts in Central and East-Central Europe in the Early Modern Era

Contributor:

Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences ; Polish National Historical Committee

Publisher:

Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Place of publishing:

Warszawa

Description:

p. 209-248 ; 23 cm

Abstract:

When in 1719 Augustus II of Poland made an attempt to emancipate himself from the influence of the Russian emperor, the latter entered into alliance with the Prussian king, with the intent of preventing emancipation of the monarch and his country. The alliance concluded by Tsar Peter the Great with King Frederick William I of Prussia expressed the substantial interests of both monarchies. It was all about keeping watchful oversight of political and military weakness of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and rendering the country isolated in the international arena. The programme established by Petersburg and Berlin remained valid until the end of the eighteenth century and the final, third, partition of Poland. The monarchs guaranteed that they would do everything possible to prevent the Polish constitutional system from altering (keeping the king’s rights restrained against the liberties maintained – primarily the liberum veto and free election of monarch), and treasury and military reforms from implementing. The preponderance over the Commonwealth implied the participation of Russia in what is termed the concert of the European powers. For the country of the Hohenzollerns, the debilitation of the nobility-based republic was, in turn, an opportunity for increasing the its territory, which had been policy energetically pursued since the Great Elector Frederick William’s reign (1640–88). For these reasons, the whole series of Russo-Prussian alliance treaties (1726, 1729, 1740, 1743, 1764, 1769, and 1772) comprised provisions regarding Polish affairs. The range of the issues covered by these bipartite agreements was ever-broadening, extending to the dissenters’ affair, among other things. Other reasons stood behind the inclusion of clauses related to the Commonwealth in Russian-Austrian treaties. Of substantial importance was the antagonism prevalent in the Reich between Austria and Prussia, which from 1740 onwards turned into acrimonious hostility. The Viennese Burg, which solicited favour from Petersburg, endeavoured to persuade its Russian ally that it was ready and willing to replace the Prussian partner in Poland-related matters of importance to Russia (cf. the treaties of 1726, 1730, 1733, 1746). Discussed is also a never-ratified tripartite agreement of 1732 – the so-called Löwenwolde’s treaty – which was momentous for the designs of the contracting parties, as well as the partition treaties of 1772.

References:

Burdowicz-Nowicki Jacek, Piotr I, August II i Rzeczpospolita, 1697–1706 (Kraków, 2010). ; Dukwicz Dorota, ‘The Internal Situation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1769–1771) and the Origins of the First Partition (In the Light of Russian Sources)’, Acta Poloniae Historica, 103 (2011), 67–84. ; Dygdała Jerzy, Die Politik Österreichs gegenüber Polen während des Interregnums im Jahre 1733, in Walter Leitsch, Stanisław Trawkowski and Wojciech Kriegseisen (eds.), Polen und Österreich im 18. Jahrhundert (Warszawa, 2000), 123–43. ; Dygdała Jerzy, Gra pozorów: zabiegi dyplomacji cesarskiej o rosyjską interwencję zbrojną w Rzeczypospolitej w 1733 r., in Urszula Kosińska, Dorota Dukwicz and Adam Danilczyk (eds.), W cieniu wojen i rozbiorów. Studia z dziejów Rzeczypospolitej XVIII i początków XIX w. (Warszawa, 2014), 137–60. ; Konopczyński Władysław, Pierwszy rozbiór Polski (Kraków, 2010). ; Kosińska Urszula, August II w poszukiwaniu sojusznika. Między aliansem wiedeńskim i hanowerskim (1725–1730) (Warszawa, 2012). ; Kosińska Urszula, ‘Could a Portuguese Prince become King of Poland? The Candidacy of Don Manuel de Bragança for the Polish Throne in the Years 1729–33’, The Slavonic and East European Review, xciv, 3 (2016), 497–508. ; Kosińska Urszula, Sejm 1719–1720 a sprawa ratyfikacji traktatu wiedeńskiego (Warszawa, 2003). ; Lukowski Jerzy T., The Szlachta and the Confederacy of Radom, 1764–1767/68. A Study of the Polish Nobility (Rome, 1977). ; Łubieńska Maria Cecylia, Sprawa dysydencka 1764–1766 (Warszawa, 1911). ; Martens Friedrich F. (Fёdor F.) (ed.), Recueil des traités et conventions conclus par la Russie avec les puissances étrangères, i–ii, v–vi (St. Pétersbourg, 1874–1883). ; Nelipovič Sergej G., Sojuz dvuglawyx orlov. Russko-avstrijskij vojennyj al‘jans vtoroj četwierti XVIII v. (Moskva, 2010). ; Nosov Boris V., Ustanowlenie rossijskogo gospodstva w Reči Pospolitoj, 1756–1768 (Moskva, 2004). ; Stribrny Wolfgang, Die Russlandpolitik Friedrichs des Großen, 1764–1786 (Würzburg, 1966). ; Strohm Klauspeter, Die kurländische Frage (1700–1763). Eine Studie zur Mächtepolitik im Ancien Régime (Berlin, 1999). ; Zielińska Zofia, Polska w okowach ‘systemu północnego’ 1763–1766 (Kraków, 2012). ; Zielińska Zofia, ‘Rosja wobec polskich planów aukcji wojska w 1738 r.’, Kwartalnik Historyczny, cvii, 3 (2000), 3–25. ; Zielińska Zofia, Walka ‘Familii’ o reformę Rzeczypospolitej 1743–1752 (Warszawa, 1983).

Relation:

Acta Poloniae Historica

Volume:

116

Start page:

209

End page:

248

Format:

application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:68570 ; 0001-6829 ; 10.12775/APH.2017.116.08

Source:

IH PAN, sygn. A.295/116 Podr. ; IH PAN, sygn. A.296/116 ; click here to follow the link

Language:

eng

Rights:

Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Institute of History PAS

Projects co-financed by:

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